CA and EA paved the way for Interlanguage theory (IL hereinafter) in . The term ‘Interlanguage’ was first introduced by Selinker ( &). The Interlanguage theory, that assumes that an active and independent learning mind Selinker believes that the evidence for interlanguage can be found. Inter-language Theory Presented to: Ma’am Mehwish. Selinker’s Five Fossilization Process Steps Over-generalization Transfer of.

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An example of a UG constraint is an ” island constraint ,” where the wh -phrase in a question has a finite number of possible positions.

Interlanguage – Wikipedia

For example, if an English learner hears sentences beginning with “do you”, they may associate it with being an indicator of a question but not as two separate words. Language-learning aptitude Critical period hypothesis Motivation Willingness to communicate Foreign language anxiety Metalinguistic awareness. The more time that learners have to plan, the more target-like their production may be. Selinker noted that in a given situation the utterances produced by the learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning.

Finally, they learned the rule for appropriate use of “-ing”. Each of these languages has its own interlangguage and phonology. For example, learners in a stressful situation such as a formal exam may produce fewer target-like forms than they would in a comfortable setting.

This approach was deficit-focused, in the sense that speech errors were thought to arise randomly and should be corrected. An introduction to bilingualism: Interlanguage theory tried to determine if there was a continuum in the internal grammar of learning additional languages, and through research, resolve if learners acquired L2 in much of the same fashion as L1. Before the interlanguage hypothesis rose to prominence, the principal theory of second-language L2 development was contrastive analysis.

Interlanguage has multiple dimensions that make it impossible to list in an article like this, but interlanguage carries a lot of research to show the validity of the hypothesis.


Second Language Acquisition Course Code: To them, the word is “doyou”. Language transfer Linguistic universal Word lists by frequency.

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. A learner may produce a target-like variant e. Individuals learning a second language may not always hear spoken L2 words as separate units.

Theories in second language acquisition: Interlanguage viewed language development as a combination of several factors including nature of input, environment, internal processing of the learner, and influence between L1 interlanguagw L2.

This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. For example, in earlier stages of acquisition, a learner will often display systematic constraints on their ability to use the correct tense.

Language acquisition Language varieties and styles Sociolinguistics Speech error. Focus on form Input enhancement. Old Occam whips out his razor”. To study the psychological processes involved one can compare the interlanguage utterances of the learner with two things:.

For example, they may deliberately choose interlamguage address a non-target form like “me no” to an English teacher in order to assert identity with a non-mainstream ethnic group.

Interlanguage Robert Davis T Views Read Edit View history. Free variation in the use of a language feature is usually taken as a sign that it has not been fully acquired.

Empirical studies in second-language variation.

On the other hand, those who approach it from a sociolinguistic or psycholinguistic orientation view variability as an inherent feature of the learner’s interlanguage. Instead of a constant step up, language learners follow spurts of growth followed by plateaus of knowledge.

In Bayley, R; Lucas, C. Instead of being able to take stairway A from the ground integlanguage to the very top, the person takes stairway A up to the second floor, enters the hall, and goes to the opposite end of the building to stairway B. The learner fossilizes the form instead of correcting it.

Some educators tend to disregard the fossilization aspect of interlanguage, but others tend to recognize that some learners do reach states where learning ceases so fossilization is possible. Systematic variation is brought about by changes in the linguistic, psychological, and social context. The most important psychological factor is usually regarded as attention to form, which is related to planning interlxnguage.


Learn how your comment data is processed. For this reason, interlanguage is thought of as a third language that is unique to the individual learner. Linguistic factors are usually extremely local. Interlanguage is based on the theory that there is a dormant psychological framework in the human brain that is activated when one attempts to learn a second language. Educators have tendencies to believe students are huge buckets we just pour information into and they learn it. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

Competition model Comprehensible output Connectionism Dynamic Systems Theory Generative second-language acquisition Input hypothesis Interaction hypothesis Interface hypothesis Interface position Noticing hypothesis Processability theory Order of acquisition Skill-based theories.

The learner is still trying to figure out what rules govern the use of alternate forms. In accordance with communication accommodation theorylearners may adapt their speech to either converge with, or diverge from, their interlocutor’s usage.


The difference is mostly one of variability, as a learner’s intelranguage is spoken only by the learner and changes frequently as they become more proficient in the language.

Those who bring a Chomskyan perspective to second-language acquisition typically regard variability as nothing more than performance errors, and not worthy of systematic inquiry. An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language or L2 which preserves some features of their first language or L1and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.

Along with interlanguage comes a very controversial topic called fossilization.